How do nonsteroid hormones act on target cells

A number of arguments counted against the COX-3 hypothesis: COX-2-selective inhibitors react weakly with the COX-3 enzymatic site, because the site is identical to that in COX-1, but they are as good at reducing fever as older NSAIDs. The fever response has also been clearly associated with a rapid induction of COX-2 expression and an associated increase in prostaglandin E2 production, with no role for COX-1 or a COX-1 gene product (., COX-3). Finally, the sites of COX-3 expression do not appear to fit in well with those sites associated with fever, and the protein should be present within the hypothalamus rather than the cerebral cortex . All these considerations appeared to argue against COX-3 being the site of the antipyretic actions of NSAIDs and COX-2-selective agents. However, the results could be read as showing that paracetamol acts at a different site than the other NSAIDs and that more than one COX isoform contribute to the fever response.

A report from Taiwan (2009) demonstrated potent therapeutic effect of ConA against experimental hepatoma (liver cancer); in the study by Lei and Chang, [32] ConA was found to be sequestered more by hepatic tumor cells, in preference to surrounding normal hepatocytes. Internalization of ConA occurs preferentially to the mitochondria after binding to cell membrane glycoproteins, which triggers an autophagic cell death. ConA was found to partially inhibit tumor nodule growth independent of its lymphocyte activation; the eradication of the tumor in the murine in-situ hepatoma model in this study was additionally attributed to the mitogenic/lymphoproliferative action of ConA that may have activated a CD8+ T-cell-mediated, as well as NK- and NK-T cell-mediated, immune response in the liver. [32]

PCA provides pain medication at the patient's need. However, because opium-like pain-relievers (opioids) are the medications these pumps deliver, there has been some concern about possible narcotic addiction. The pumps are calibrated to a maximum dosage, and are limited to a maximum dose every eight (or 12) hours. The health care staff checks the equipment regularly, and records the number of times the patient pushes the pump button. If the patient has pushed the button more times than allowed, the pump refuses to administer more medication. The patient should notify the health care staff if a specific medication is ineffective. In some cases, the patient needs encouragement to use the pump more, if necessary.

How do nonsteroid hormones act on target cells

how do nonsteroid hormones act on target cells

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