The first picture below is normal, unobstructed gas exchange. If you look to the second picture, you see the alveoli have an accumulation of fluid in them, which impairs the gas exchange that should occur to provide appropriate oxygenation into circulation. What results is coughing (many times producing phlegm), fever, chills, chest pain or pain when coughing, or cold/flu like symptoms. Inflammation can also occur. Antibiotics are administered, and the choice of which is dependent upon the offending pathogen, any other medical conditions going on with the patient, and if there are any antibiotic resistances present . Oral antibiotics are given typically for community-acquired pneumonia, however if the patient is hospitalized, they will most likely receive IV antibiotics. Steroids are typically administered to address inflammation.
While it’s true that the BLS guidelines state 30:2 compression to breath ratio, what Dr Morrison is suggesting both for BLS and ALS is not to stop compressions for breaths, but rather to deliver the breath every 10 cycles of compressions in between compressions as they do in Seattle EMS. With regards to definitive airway, the idea is that we don’t need to rush to establish a definitive airway – we can wait up to 6 minutes. Placement of an LMA is a perfectly reasonable option assuming there is no pause in chest compressions during its placement. Thanks for listening!